1. Introduction
    1. Aviation and aerospace connect people, cultures, and businesses like no other form of transport. Aviation directly contributes to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and plays an integral role in improving and transforming people’s lives around the world.
    2. Global aviation produces around 2 per cent of all human-induced carbon dioxide emissions and 12 per cent of CO2 emissions from all transport sources.
  2. The Government to Collaborate Extensively with a Variety of other Organisations
    1. Why is it vital for the government to be concerned about the impacts of a global warming climate?
      1. One of the best options we can do to control global warming emissions and prevent local populations from the most devastating effects of climate change is to develop adequate economic incentives to lower the carbon footprint of aircraft
        1. https://www.worldwildlife.org/initiatives/cutting-aviation-pollution
      2. Emissions of carbon do not, by themselves, reveal the entire picture. When jet fuel is burnt during a flight, in addition to CO2, other pollutants are also released into the atmosphere. It is possible that these pollutants account for more than half of the impact that flying has on the warming of our climate.
    2. In order to address the issue of global warming, what sorts of policies have the government and World Wild Life (WWF) come up with as potential solutions?
      1. 1. WWF and its partners are working to promote climate-conscious industry practices and stronger government policies
        1. https://www.worldwildlife.org/magazine/issues/summer-2021/articles/advocating-for-climate-conscious-air-travel
      2. 2. To assist international airlines in reducing emissions from their supply chains and operations by fifty per cent by the year 2050
      3. 3. The proposed policy solutions include taxes on people who fly frequently or in first class, as well as stricter CO efficiency standards for aircraft and jet fuel
      4. 4. To invest in less carbon-intensive transportation initiatives
    3. How will The International Coalition for Sustainable Aviation (ICSA) successfully implement its strategy to reduce the impact of aviation on global warming?
      1. The ICSA will put its plan into action to lessen the effect that aviation has on global warming
        1. https://files.worldwildlife.org/wwfcmsprod/files/Publication/file/ezydwni5z_ICSA_ICSA_MBM_Checklist1.pdf
      2. Differentiates responsibilities among varied airlines and destinations
        1. 1. Regional routes with already heavy carbon pollution should shoulder greater initial responsibility
        2. 2. Obligations of small, fast-growing regional routes should increase as their pollution grows; and responsibilities should be updated regularly
      3. Welcomes more ambitious policies to cut aviation pollution including through additional operational measures and rapid deployment of the lowest greenhouse gas emitting technologies.
  3. Enabling Carbon Offsetting Programs
    1. Who are the stakeholders that have an interest in the success of offset programs and what are their expectations and objectives towards these programs?
      1. Governments - to see airline take action to ensure their long-term position in a sustainable society
        1. https://www.iata.org/en/programs/environment/carbon-offset/#:~:text=What%20is%20carbon%20offsetting%3F,investing%20in%20carbon%20reduction%20projects
      2. Shareholders - want their investment to be protected by appropriate programs and planning
      3. Corporate Customers- Evaluate the 'need to fly' or move freight by air and the position individual airlines take in climate change as well as the cost of offset programs
      4. Non-governmental organizations - To push for responsible action by airlines
      5. Employees - Wish to be associated with the companies that are environmentally responsible
      6. Passengers - Will want to see 'value for money' and real emission reductions when they pay for an offset
      7. Travel agents - Looking to offer emission compensation for their customers
    2. What are the potential risks of carbon offsets programs if the airlines did not examine the offset proposition thoroughly?
      1. Misleading calculation of carbon quantities
      2. Lack of quality verification of carbon benefits
      3. Possible double selling of credits
    3. What are carbon credits and what type of carbon credits are allowed under the IATA carbon offset program?
      1. A carbon credit is a permit that represents one tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has either been removed from the atmosphere or saved from being emitted. These carbon credits are cancelled on an official register to ensure that they cannot be sold or used again. Carbon credits create a market for reducing greenhouse emissions by giving a monetary value to the cost of polluting the air.
      2. Airline participating in the IATA carbon offset program typically offer carbon credits stemming from renewable or other high-quality projects that follow the stringent requirements of the QAS
        1. 1. Certificates issued under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 2. Certificates issued with the Gold Standard or VCS version 2007 onwards. 3. Approved offset based on land use employ sustainable REDD + project methodologies
  4. The Commitement of Airline's to Achieve Net Zero Carbon by 2025
    1. What is the plan that needs industry and governments to work closely together to achieve Fly Net Zero?
      1. Sustainable Aviation Fuel
        1. The absorbed carbon as they are made saf cut net emission by 80%
          1. https://www.iata.org/en/programs/environment/flynetzero/#:~:text=IATA%20%2D%20Fly%20Net%20Zero&text=Fly%20Net%20Zero%20is%20the,warming%20to%201.5%C2%B0C.
        2. Increase the amount of safs we use to around 450 billions litres by 2050 eliminating 65 our co2
        3. It will be a fuel revolution and as we have seen with the switch to solar and wind for electricity when everyone works together chains
      2. Radical new technologies
        1. Geared turbofan engines and further advances in design will drive a further 15-25% fuel efficiency improvements
      3. Flight efficiencies through infrastructure and operation
        1. The potential for operations and infrastructure efficiency improvements to contribute to reducing CO2 emissions
        2. These measures can often be implemented at scale faster than aircraft-level technologies
      4. Offsets and carbon capture
        1. CO2 reduction or removal used as an offset be ‘additional’ to business-as-usual activity
        2. Offsets must also represent a permanent reduction of emissions that cannot be reversed. Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) is a technology that can capture up to 90% of the CO2 emissions produced
    2. What is the responsibility of all airline operators under CORSIA to address environmental and social risks?
      1. Operators must keep track of their fuel use for each individual flight in order to calculate their CO2 emissions. They will have to apply one of the five approved fuel use monitoring methods
      2. Operators may be eligible to use simplified monitoring and estimate their emissions using the CO2 Estimation and Reporting Tool (CERT), developed in ICAO as part of CORSIA. To guarantee the accuracy of the data reported by operators, annual emissions reports will need to be verified by an independent third-party verification body, prior to submission to the State.
    3. Why does net-zero sustainable tourism by 2050 starts with taking fewer long-haul flights and can they be ultra-long flight in a net-zero world?
      1. Because long-distance flights are the hardest to decarbonise
        1. The larger takeaway: the near-impossible extremes required by every sector of travel simply confirm that the tourism industry faces crisis.It is difficult to picture how long-distance flights will be compatible with pledges to achieve net-zero emissions, especially since the means of making air travel more sustainable will be expensive and hard to secure
  5. Route Optimisation
    1. What is route optimisation and how can it be related with the reduction of carbon emissions and minimising the climate impact in the aviation industry?
      1. Route optimization is the process of determining the most cost-efficient route. It's more complex than simply finding the shortest path between two points. It needs to include all relevant factors, such as the number and location of all the required stops on the route, as well as time windows for deliveries.
        1. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjInrHDrqj8AhV1C7cAHYJfBIkQFnoECBgQAw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fclimate.nasa.gov%2Fnews%2F3134%2Freducing-emissions-to-lessen-climate-change-would-yield-dramatic-health-benefits-by-2030%2F&usg=AOvVaw1acyMUThWlQoN4Mlead3I2
      2. Route optimisation can be related with the reduction of carbon emissions because optimisation reduces the miles and has multiple stops per route, so it automatically can reduce the fuel consumption and the production of CO2.
      3. when the fuel is burned, fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide that contributes to global warming. So, when fossil fuels are less burned, they release smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, into the air.
    2. Is there any software for route optimisation and what is the benefit of using the software?
      1. Some airlines are turning to route plan optimising software. These can provide quick results, allowing you to enter various factors and scenarios and receive automatically optimised route plans that include crew management, maintenance, and booking functionality.
        1. https://i6.io/blog/4-ways-airlines-can-reduce-their-carbon-footprint
      2. these solutions can certainly reduce costs and increase productivity and flight efficiency, carbon footprint reduction can only realistically be impacted if used in combination with other sustainability initiatives such as SAF or a modernised fleet.
    3. Do you think by route optimisation can achieve the goal which is to reduce carbon emission and global warming? If yes, are there any factors in determining route optimization?
      1. Yes, I think route optimization can reduce carbon emission and also global warming. There are many factors in determining route optimization including length of flight, the average number of passengers, and typical weather conditions
        1. https://i6.io/blog/4-ways-airlines-can-reduce-their-carbon-footprint
  6. Noise Pollution Reduction Through the Use of Computer Programs
    1. What are some of the recent technological advancements that can help reduce noise?
      1. Active Noise Control : The reduction of sound wave by adding reverse sound wave is known as active noise control, also known as active noise cancellation. A noise cancelling speaker emits sound with the same amplitude as the noise sources but with inverted phase.
        1. https://www.longdom.org/open-access/technologies-for-aircraft-noise-reduction-a-review-47567.html
      2. Acoustic Boundary Control : Hirsch and Sun developed an acoustic boundary control method that proposes implementing a distributed array of acoustic sources at the structuralacoustic interface in conjunction with a sensor array. Hirsch, Jayachandran, and Sun proposed an acoustic boundary control approach for preventing internal sound areas that combines the ANC's lower power requirements.
      3. Shape optimization : Shape optimization tools have been shown to be effective in designing the inlet duct to reduce radiated sound in distant areas. The primary goal of shape optimization is to reduce far field acoustic radiation by manipulating the geometry of an engine duct
    2. What measures can be taken to reduce the amount of noise that is produced by the aircraft that use the airport?
      1. The principles of runway use and flight route planning are two methods for controlling aircraft noise. Within the constraints of flight safety regulations, these actions direct traffic to the least populated areas. Noise pollution is reduced at Helsinki Airport, for example, by directing aircraft takeoff and landing
        1. https://www.finavia.fi/en/about-finavia/responsibility/environment/noi
    3. Does the noise from aircraft have a significant impact on the environment?
      1. Commercial aircraft have an impact on populations living near airports as well as the environment as a result of this increase. Aircraft noise is regarded as one of the most serious environmental issues in modern city communities, affecting residents who live near airports.
        1. https://etrr.springeropen.com/articles/10.1007/s12544-013-0106-0
  7. Hybrid-electric Aircraft
    1. How would hybrid electric-fuel aircraft contribute to green environmentally friendly air travel?
      1. With aviation traffic expected to rise by 5% every year through 2030, experts are investigating ways to make planes more environmentally friendly. However, because present batteries make electric aircraft much too expensive, hybrid fuel and electric versions might pave the way for sustainable air travel - and could be in the air within 15 years.
        1. https://ec.europa.eu/research-and-innovation/en/horizon-magazine/how-hybrid-electric-and-fuel-aircraft-could-green-air-travel
    2. How exactly do hybrid electric planes carry out their operation?
      1. In an electric plane, around 70% of the energy consumed to charge a battery is used to power the plane. There are some costs for the battery and the engine, but the efficiency is good when compared to other solutions for decarbonizing flights. With the help of hydrogen and synthetic fuel.
        1. https://www.technologyreview.com/2022/08/17/1058013/electric-planes-taking-off-challenges/
    3. Does our country now make use of any hybrid-powered aircraft?
      1. No, Air Canada and United Airlines are among the first clients for Heart Aerospace's new hybrid-electric jet. The ES-30, named for its 30-passenger capacity, will replace the Gothenburg, Sweden-based planemaker's all-electric ES-19, which United originally committed to last year.
        1. https://airlineweekly.com/2022/09/air-canada-united-among-first-to-order-new-hybrid-electric-plane
  8. Conclusion
    1. It is important for governments to take steps to ensure that the aviation sector is more climate resilient, in order to mitigate the environmental impacts of air travel and reduce the sector's carbon footprint. The steps taken by governments can help to ensure that the aviation sector is more climate resilient and better equipped to meet the challenges of a changing climate. Some aspects of the aviation industry may be more climate resilient than others, and the sector's overall climate resilience may depend on a variety of factors such as technological advances, fuel efficiency, and regulatory measures. That being said, the aviation sector has made significant efforts in recent years to reduce its environmental impact and increase its climate resilience. The aviation sector must fully prepared and more climate-resilient, ensuring that safety, security and environmental standards are met, and consumers’ rights. are protected
  9. Leader: Nur Fatin Izzati Secretary: Nur Atikah Izzati Public Industry Relation: Nur Kamilia Reserachers: Wan Nur Azreen, Muhammad Zulhaikal, Muhd Faisal Lecturer: Tuan Haji ahmad Zahir Mokhtar
  10. Question given: Stratergies employed government in reducing global warming contributed by air travel