1. Work of a business pursued by teams
    1. Managerial Leverage
      1. Key Takeaways
        1. Output of a manager is the output of the organizational units under their supervision or influence
        2. Manager should move to point where their leverage is greatest
        3. Information sources should complement each other and be redundant so you can verify what you've learned
        4. Manager gathers information but is also a source of it
        5. Choose most effective medium for what you want to accomplish
          1. Meetings are a medium to convey information
          2. Calendar is the medium of a manager's forecast
        6. Manger should have 6-8 subordinates, allocate .5 day/week to each
      2. Hierarchy of information
        1. Verbal sources: Most valuable but less accurate
        2. Full report: comprehensive but slower
        3. Visit a location and observe/ask questions
      3. Activities of a manager
        1. Gather information
        2. Convey Information
        3. Make Decision
        4. Role Model
      4. Increasing Managerial Productivity
        1. Def: Output of a manager/time worked
        2. Speed up rate of work
        3. Increasing activity leverage
        4. Shifting mix of activities from low leverage to high leverage activities
      5. Achieving high leverage activities
        1. Many people affected by one manager
        2. If person's long term behavior is affected by a manager's limited words or actions
        3. Large group's work affected by individual supplying key piece of information
      6. Increasing Managerial Activity Rate by applying production principles
        1. ID limiting step and move yielding activities around it
        2. Batch similar tasks
        3. Actively use calendar to fill holes, say no to work beyond your capacity
        4. Allow for slack in your scheduling
        5. Carry an inventory in terms of projects
        6. Develop procedures for repeated actions
    2. Meetings
      1. Types of meetings
        1. Process-Oriented
          1. People should know how the meeting is run, the agenda, and what is to be accomplished
          2. One on ones
          3. Between a supervisor and subordinate
          4. Frequency depends on task relevant maturity of the subordinate, work tempo
          5. Last at least an hour
          6. Agenda set by the subordinate
          7. Cover performance figures, previous topics, potential future problems
          8. Staff Meetings
          9. Supervisor and all subordinates participate
          10. Agenda but also an "open session"
          11. Supervisor: moderator, facilitator, controller of pace and thrust
          12. Operation Reviews
          13. Formal presentations for people who don't commonly interact
          14. Organizing manager, reviewing managers, presenter, audience
        2. Mission-Oriented
          1. Held ad hoc and designed to produce a specific output, frequently a decision
    3. Decision Making Process
      1. Ideal Model
        1. Free Discussion
        2. Clear Decision
        3. Full Support
      2. Manager answers these questions
        1. What decision needs to be made?
        2. When does it have to be made?
        3. Who will decide?
        4. Who needs to be consulted prior?
        5. Who will ratify or veto the decision?
        6. Who needs to be informed of the decision?
    4. Planning Process
      1. Establish projected need or demand
      2. Establish present status
      3. Identify required actions
      4. Strategy vs. Tactics
        1. Strategy: Most abstract and general summary of the plan
        2. Tactics: How you implement your strategy
        3. Strategy at one level is the tactical concern of the higher level
      5. Management by Objective
        1. Planning process applied to daily work
        2. Develop objectives and milestones
        3. Designed to provide feedback on task at hand
        4. Feedback must be received soon after activity it is measuring occurs
    5. Hybrid Organizations
      1. Mission-Oriented
        1. Completely decentralized
      2. Functional
        1. Completely centralized
    6. Modes of Control
      1. Free-market forces
      2. Contractual obligations
      3. Cultural values
  2. Eliciting peak performance from team members
    1. Motivating Subordinates
      1. Key Takeaways
        1. All a manager can do is create an environment in which motivated people can flourish
        2. If we are to create and maintain a high degree of motivation, we must keep some needs unsatisfied
        3. Role of manager is to train then move them to the point of self-actualization
      2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
        1. Everything below self-actualization is self-limiting
      3. Self-actualization
        1. Competence or achievement driven
        2. Use MBO to create an environment where achievement is beyond immediate grasp
        3. Person needs measures to guage progress and achievement
        4. Most appropriate measures tie employee performance to organizations performance
        5. Most important form of feedback is the performance review
      4. Sports Analogy
        1. Establish some rules of the game and ways for employees to measure themselves.
        2. Comparing our work to sports may also teach us how to cope with failure
        3. Ideal Coach
          1. Takes no personal credit for team success
          2. Tough on team
          3. Was likely a good player, understands the game
    2. Task Relevant Maturity
      1. Degree of achievement orientation, readiness to take responsibility, education, training, experience
      2. Low
        1. Highly structured approach
      3. Medium
        1. Communication, emotional support, encouragement
      4. High
        1. objective oriented
    3. Performance reviews
      1. Purpose
        1. Assess performance
        2. Deliver performance
        3. Allocate rewards
      2. Assessing performance
        1. Identify expectations
        2. Compare short/long term impact
        3. Time offset between activity and result
        4. For leaders, their performance + team's
        5. ID actions to improve/maintain performance
      3. Major Performance Problems
        1. Will progress through stages of conflict resolution
        2. Need facts and examples to demonstrate reality
      4. Deliver review prior to meeting
    4. Interviewing
      1. Purpose
        1. ID technical knowledge
        2. Assess how they performed previously
        3. ID discrepancies between capabilities and performance
        4. Determine if candidate would perform in your company's environment
  3. Output oriented approach to management
    1. Basics of Production
      1. Requirements of Production
        1. Deliver products at the scheduled time
        2. At an acceptable quality level
        3. At the lowest possible cost
      2. Key Terms
        1. Limiting step: Takes the most time/resources
        2. Total throughput time: length of the entire process
      3. Production Operations
        1. Process manufacturing: physically changes the material
        2. Assembly: components put together into a new entity
        3. Test: subject components/total to examination of its characteristics
      4. Key Takeaways
        1. Find the most cost-effective way to deploy your resources (equipment capacity, manpower, inventory, delivery time)
        2. Choose in process tests over those that would destroy the product
        3. Have enough raw material inventory to cover consumption rate for the length of time it takes to replace you raw material
        4. Detect and fix any problem at the lowest-value stage possible
    2. Product Development Management
      1. Recommended Indicators
        1. Sales forecast for the day
        2. Raw Material Inventory
        3. Equipment Condition
        4. Manpower available
        5. Quality Indicator
      2. Key Takeaways
        1. Focus each indicator on a specific operational goal
        2. Pairing indicators to prevent overreacting
        3. Effective indicators cover the output of the work unit and not simply the activity involved
        4. Monitor for errors when you are not likely to encounter big problems
      3. Uses of Indicators
        1. Spell out objectives of a group/individual
        2. Provide objectivity
        3. Can compare groups performing the same function
        4. Analyze data to identify causes of problems
      4. Controlling Future Output
        1. Build to Order
        2. Build to Forecast
          1. Manufacturing Flow: Raw material -> finished good
          2. Selling Process: Prospect -> Order
      5. Productivity
        1. Def: Output/labor required
        2. Increase productivity by operating faster
        3. Increase productivity by increasing leverage (Work simplification/automation)