1. Some media are more likely to cause obstruction
      1. New/Unknown media are more likely to attract attention, resulting in collecting crowds and distracting drivers
        1. Magic Lantern/Flash Light/Transmutograph/Cinematographic/Sterescopic advertising
        2. Balloons
        3. At least at the beginning - the time people get familiar/indifferent to - then becoming ordinary media
          1. We would like to have permission to inaugurate this new departure for on month : for the first few nights, it may attract some extra attention, yet we feel that after that time it will only attract and answer the same purpose as the bill boards. If after a month it is found that is it detrimental to the welfare and safety of the public, then we would remove same, but if to the contrary, it only acts as an advertising medium of the same class as bill boards, etc. then we would like a permanent permit, subject to your usual regulations. / If all of the largest cities in the United States and Europe, this style of advertising is used extensively and has proven to be safe and sane. Letter from Andersen, Meyer & Company, Limited - Screen advertising project. 1918.
          2. This site (Public Recreation Ground) would provide an opportunity for observing the actual effect of such a structure in a road frequented both by the foreigner and Chinese population. The Assistant Secretary observes that in fact the Committee need not feel that it must accede to the request of the applicants as the suggestion is entirely novel and has been strongly vetoed heretofore. Mr. Lambe observes that conditions are changing rapidly and that the mere novelty of the suggestion should not cause it to be rejected (...). Copy of Minute of Works Committee Meeting Held on Tuesday the 13th December 1921. Advertising Kiosks (Oriental Press). Source : SMA (SMC), U1-14-3387 (2626)
      2. Mobile Advertising
        1. Sandwichmen (prohibited in 1931)
          1. Advertising Art Studio. "Moving Advertising Boards". December 15, 1942". Source: SMA (SMC), U1-4-3822 (0616)
          2. Advertising Art Studio. "Proposed use of boys for the sole purpose of displaying advertisements. January 22, 1943. Source: SMA (SMC), U1-4-3822 (0608)
        2. Rickshaw
          1. “Application for Permission to Affix Advertisements to Bodies of Ricshas as also on Pullers' Coats - Advertising on Ricshas & Pullers' Coats - Applications - National Advertising Agency”. November 25, 1927. Source :  SMA, U1-3-2992 (0695-0697)
          2. “Application for Permission to Affix Advertisements to Bodies of Ricshas as also on Pullers' Coats - Advertising on Ricshas & Pullers' Coats - Applications - National Advertising Agency”. November 25, 1927. Source :  SMA, U1-3-2992 (0695-0697)
          3. “Application for Permission to Affix Advertisements to Bodies of Ricshas as also on Pullers' Coats - Advertising on Ricshas & Pullers' Coats - Applications - National Advertising Agency”. November 25, 1927. Source :  SMA, U1-3-2992 (0695-0697)
        3. Public transportation
        4. Private cabs or motorcars
      3. Fixed advertising encroaching the roadway or occupying the pavements
        1. Flags & Banners
          1. Foochow Road, 1920s. Source: Pinterest
        2. Advertising pillars or poles
        3. Advertising painted or projected on pavements
          1. Wyatt and Zimmerman 1929. Source: U1-14-3257 (2251)
    2. Some cities are more congested than others...
      1. Shanghai = a "naturally" congested city ? Unlocated. 1948-1949. Source: Pinterest
        1. In Shanghai, some areas are more congested than others
          1. The International Settlement in one of the most busiest territory in Shanghai
          2. I am of opinion that the roads in the International Settlement are unsuitable for this form of advertisement and with the continuous increase in vehicular and pedestrian traffic the necessity for prohibiting anything that may tend to cause obstruction of congestion is more apparent than before. Communicatus Advertising Company. Source: U1-14-3257 (2313). 1931
          3. In the International Settlement , some streets are more congested than others
          4. Main Roads and crossroads are already too congested (Nanking, Peking, Szechuen Roads...)
          5. "Dense Traffic on Szechuen Road Bridge". Source: Szechuen Road Bridge. 1945-1949. Source: Virtual Shanghai. http://www.virtualshanghai.net/Photos/Images?ID=33311&Op=dU
          6. For you information, I am to add that a prominent factor in the Council's deliberations was the undoubted impediment which would be caused to free movement of traffic in the already over congested district in which you suggest that the structures might be placed. Letter to The Oriental Press (Advertising Department) from Acting Secretary, February 11, 1922. Source : SMA (SMC), U1-14-3387 (2631)
          7. Narrow streets and pavements are more susceptible of obstruction
          8. STREET VARIETY opposed STANDARDIZATION and imposed MICRO-LOCALIZATION = a site-driven approach to advertising spaces
          9. The Council remains open to relocations
          10. I am directed to refer to your letter of October 15, relative to the erection of a kiosk, in accordance with the design and model submitted, on the Bund in the vicinity of the Nanking Road. In reply thereto I am to state that the Council has given careful consideration to your request, but is unable to accede thereto, as such a structure would almost inevitably cause traffic congestion. I am to add that whilst the erection of this structure on such a site as that referred to above, would be precluded from consideration for the reasons stated, should you desire to submit for consideration other sites which might be suitable to your purpose, and would not be open to objection from the traffic point of view, the Council would be willing to consider the matter again. Oriental Press. Proposed Advertising kiosks. November 23, 1921. Source : SMA (SMC), U1-14-3387 (2620)
          11. In informing you of the unsuitability for general introduction of the proposed type of pillar, involving a 14" square base, I have to state that the Council is prepared to consider an application for the application of a smaller pillar, the base of which would occupy a considerably lesser area, or, alternatively, a device which could be affixed around existing street standards. Letter to Art Picture Advertising Company, 13 June 1929. Source: U1-14-3257 (2175)
          12. The medium, size and forms should be adapted to each specific location and situation
          13. A very careful examination of each site conditions and medium properties with purpose of micro-adaptation
          14. The sample standard erected at Peking Road - Bund junction is considered preferable. 2. Any permission given to instal should clearly state: (a) Each location must be considered separately. (b) The Bus Company must take full responsibility for erection and maintenance. (c) On request by the Police the Bus Company must dismantly and remove these signs promptly. Illuminated Advertisement Company vs. Art Picture Advertising Company. Advertising Pillars at Omnibus Stopping Places. 1926-1927. Source: U1-14-3257 (2150-2151)
          15. Illuminated Advertisement Company Sample Pillar erected on Avenue Edward VII (May 1929) - considered as preferable by PWD. Source: U1-14-3257 (2167)
          16. Further letter from the Oriental Press with Works Department report is next considered and after some discussion members record an opinion favourable to permission being granted for a kiosk to be reerected near the Public Recreation Ground on the small reentrant of pavement next the New World, but not in the position indicated by the applicants, which they consider would encroach too much on the main pathway. Copy of Minute of Works Committee Meeting Held on Tuesday the 13th December 1921. Advertising Kiosks (Oriental Press). Source : SMA (SMC), U1-14-3387 (2625)
          17. What about the French Concession ?
          18. Chinese territory ?
        2. Especially at certain times during the day (rush hours)
      2. Especially when compared to other cities in Asia (Hongkong, Singapore) and elsewhere in the world
  2. REGULATING CONGESTED SPACES (Police's viewpoint
    1. ORGANS
      1. Public Works Department (PWD)
      2. Police Force
      1. Controlling the process of erection
        1. Works to be processed during the night or out of busy times
          1. The kiosks would be built of reinforced concrete in two sizes, 2'-6" and 3'-6" across the base, and 11 feet high above the footpath. They will be made hollow and erected in one or two pieces, all work to be done at night so as not to interfere with the traffic. As you are no doubt aware these kiosks are very popular on the Continent and have not been found to be any obstruction to traffic. Atkinson & Dallas, Limited. Advertising Kiosks. 1920. Source: SMA (SMC), U1-14-3387 (2605)
          2. Such a Hoarding could be erected in a night, as those we are putting up at the moment consist of steel bars with reinforced, concrete bases to which the Boards are bolted. The Boards are made in four sections and these can be fitted together very rapidly, so that there would be no obstruction to traffic as they could be erected in one night when traffic was not there. No work would be carried on during the day time. (U1-14-3255 (1795) (a) All work in connection with the erection or removal of the hoardings shall be carried out between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.
          3. Except for painting: We never guaranteed to paint the boards at night, only to erect them. We regret that this was not understood otherwise we should have told you in the beginning that it was our intention to paint during the daytime after erection. (U1-14-3255 (1804)
        2. Permit required for the erection or ladders, gantries or scaffolds on public ways
          1. Unlocated. 1948 Source: Pinterest
          2. Unlocated. 1948 Source: Pinterest
      2. Limiting the projection of signs and encroachments of signs and lamps on public space
        1. As early as 1905. Encroachment or obstruction to the public streets can't be undertaken without a permit from Municipal Engineer. Source: SMA (SMC), U1-4-371 (2495)
        2. Shanghai Municipal Council Regulations (192?) : Projecting no more than 3 feet over the public way, hanging at a height of no less than 11 feet above the ground
          1. Asiatic Petroleum projected "Shell" sign. Corner Rockhill & Amherst Avenue - first project. October 16, 1935 (disapproved). Source: U1-14-3268 (1316)
          2. Asiatic Petroleum projected "Shell" sign - Corner Rockhill & Amherst Avenue. revised project in 1936 (approved after reducing the projection). May 18-21, 1936. Source: U1-14-3268 (1316)
        3. French Concession: "taxe de saillie"
        4. An unexpected reversal of political practices: absolute prohibition in the International Settlement vs. prohibitive taxation in the French Concession
      3. Banning any form of advertising on pavements
        1. Pillars
        2. Poles
        3. Standard Clocks
        4. Kiosks
        5. Painted or projected on pavements
          1. K. Mondenach, Projected sign inside the jewellery shop with lantern effect on pavements, No. 1163 Bubbling Well Road Corner Seymour Road. June 1940. Source: U1-14-3257 (2272)
      4. Restricting colours likely which likely to interfere with traffic lights or signals (red & green lights or painting) (1931-1943)
        1. In the meantime it is desirable from the Police point of view that no permit should be issued in the future for any red or green electrical lighting devices for a space of 25 feet above ground level on or facing all public roads.
        2. As the applicants have now applied for permits for the repainting of their signs, consideration has to be given to their applications and consequently they were forwarded to you for your comments from the point of view of traffic and colour scheme, so as to enable this Department either to issue the permits or to disapprove the applications, in which case the signs will be removed when the next demolition takes place in that district.
    3. Compromising between municipal and commercial interests: how to conciliate "the maximum amount of display (companies' view) with a minimum amount of obstruction (Council's view)?
      1. Members do not approve the other sites suggested by the applicants but in dealing with the suggested site at the corner of Avenue and Thibet Roads, it is noted that possibly a much better site from all points of view would be the large traffic island at the junction of the the Peking and Thibet Roads. Mr. Harpur in suggesting this site observes that form the applicants point of view the maximum amount of display could be obtained whilst from the Council's view a minimum amount of obstruction could be obtained. Copy of Minute of Works Committee Meeting Held on Tuesday the 13th December 1921. Advertising Kiosks (Oriental Press). Source : SMA (SMC), U1-14-3387 (2625)
  3. Could advertising help to solve traffic problems? Commercial appropriations of Police concerns
    1. Carl Crow, Incoporated, 1923. North Chekiang Road. B.C No.3328 Cad Lot No. 150.
      1. We may also add that by giving an unobstructed view of the street corner it would help to solve traffic problems at that point. Source: SMA (SMC), U1-14-3253 (1430)