1. APPEARANCE appearance,n. Procedure. A coming into court as a party or interested person, or as a lawyer on behalf of a party or interested person; esp., a defendant's act of taking part in a lawsuit, whether by formally participating in it or by an answer, demurrer, or motion, or by taking post judgment steps in the lawsuit in either the trial court or an ap-pellate court. [Cases: Appearance 1–29; Federal Civil Procedure 561–574. C.J.S. Appearances §§ 2–59.] — appear,vb. Black's Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004) , Page 304-05
    2. limited appearance. See special appearance. special appearance. 1. A defendant's pleading that either claims that the court lacks personal jurisdiction over the defendant or objects to improper service of process. 2. A defendant's showing up in court for the sole purpose of contesting the court's assertion of personal jurisdiction over the defendant. • Special appearances have been abolished in federal court. Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b). — Also termed limited appearance; appearance de bene esse; (in English & Canadian law) appearance under protest. [Cases: Appearance 9(2, 3); Federal Civil Procedure 565. C.J.S. Appearances §§ 4, 7, 23, 25–28.]
    3. special proceeding. 1. A proceeding that can be commenced independently of a pending action and from which a final order may be appealed immediately. 2. A proceeding involving statutory or civil remedies or rules rather than the rules or remedies ordinarily available under rules of procedure; a proceeding providing extraordinary relief. [Cases: Action 20. C.J.S. Actions § 67.]
    4. PROCEEDING proceeding. 1. The regular and orderly progression of a lawsuit, including all acts and events between the time of commencement and the entry of judgment. 2. Any procedural means for seeking redress from a tribunal or agency. 3. An act or step that is part of a larger action. 4. The business conducted by a court or other official body; a hearing. 5.Bankruptcy. A particular dispute or matter arising within a pending case — as opposed to the case as a whole. [Cases: Bankruptcy 2156. C.J.S. Bankruptcy § 26.] “ ‘Proceeding’ is a word much used to express the business done in courts. A proceeding in court is an act done by the authority or direction of the court, express or implied. It is more comprehensive than the word ‘action,’ but it may include in its general sense all the steps taken or measures adopted in the prosecution or defense of an action, including the pleadings and judgment. As applied to actions, the term ‘proceeding’ may include — (1) the institution of the action; (2) the appearance of the defendant; (3) all ancillary or provisional steps, such as arrest, attachment of property, garnishment, injunction, writ of ne exeat; (4) the pleadings; (5) the taking of testimony before trial; (6) all motions made in the action; (7) the trial; (8) the judgment; (9) the execution; (10) proceedings supplementary to execution, in code practice; (11) the taking of the appeal or writ of error; (12) the remittitur, or sending back of the record to the lower court from the appellate or reviewing court; (13) the enforcement of the judgment, or a new trial, as may be directed by the court of last resort.” Edwin E. Bryant, The Law of Pleading Under the Codes of Civil Procedure 3–4 (2d ed. 1899). Black's Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004) , Page 3808
    1. I AM
      2. making SPECIAL APPEARANCE
    2. SPECIAL special,adj. 1. Of, relating to, or designating a species, kind, or individual thing. 2. (Of a statute, rule, etc.) designed for a particular purpose. 3. (Of powers, etc.) unusual; extraordinary. special term. A term of court scheduled outside the general term, usu. for conducting extraordinary business. [Cases: Courts 64. C.J.S. Courts § 119.]
      1. UNUSUAL
    3. SPECIAL EXCEPTION 1. A party's objection to the form rather than the substance of an opponent's claim, such as an objection for vagueness or ambiguity. See DEMURRER. Cf. general exception Black's Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004) , Page 4367 (1) under EXCEPTION(1). [Cases: Pleading 228.14. C.J.S. Pleading § 233.] 2. An allowance in a zoning ordinance for special uses that are considered essential and are not fundamentally incompatible with the original zoning regulations. — Also termed (in sense 2) conditional use; special use. Cf. VARIANCE(2). [Cases: Zoning and Planning 481. C.J.S. Zoning and Land Planning §§ 228–229, 231–232.]
      1. SUBSTANCE v. FORM
    4. SPECIAL-PURPOSE ENTITY special-purpose entity. A business established to perform no function other than to develop, own, and operate a large, complex project (usu. called a single-purpose project), esp. so as to limit the number of creditors claiming against the project. • A special-purpose entity provides additional protection for project lenders, which are usu. paid only out of the money generated by the entity's business, because there will be fewer competing claims for that money and because the entity will be less likely to be forced into bankruptcy. A special-purpose entity will sometimes issue securities instead of just receiving a direct loan. — Abbr. SPE. — Also termed special-purpose vehicle (SPV). See BANKRUPTCY-REMOTE ENTITY; SINGLE-PURPOSE PROJECT ; project financing under FINANCING.
    5. SPECIAL-RELATIONSHIP DOCTRINE special-relationship doctrine. The theory that if a state has assumed control over an individual sufficient to trigger an affirmative duty to protect that individual (as in an involuntary hospitalization or custody), then the state may be liable for the harm inflicted on the individual by a third party. • This is an exception to the general principle prohibiting members of the public from suing state employees for failing to protect them from third parties. — Also termed special-relationship exception. Cf. DANGER-CREATION DOCTRINE . [Cases: States 112.2(2).]