1. Chemicals from C1 Compounds
    1. Methane is used in the production of synthesis gas, CO and H2 ,methanol and formaldehyde.
    2. The largest application of C1 chemistry is the production of methanol
    3. The use of CO for the preparation of dimethylformamideanddi-methylacetamide
  2. Synthesis Gas
    1. Synthesis gas refers to a mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in any proportions.
    2. Synthesis gas is required for a number of petrochemical process such as:
      1. ✓ Methanol synthesis (using H2 /CO ratio 2/1)
      2. ✓ Oxosyntheis producing alcohol and aldehydes
      3. ✓ Manufacturing phosgene and ammonia
      4. (Fisher–Tropsch)F-T synthesis and synthetic natural gas (CH4 )
  3. Synthesis Gas Production
    1. steam reforming (of natural gas or naphtha) The steam reforming become the primary method .
      1. Steam reforming gives H2 /CO ratio 2/1 (in case of naphtha),
      2. 3/1 (in case of natural gas)
    2. partial oxidation (of any of petroleum fractions).
      1. Partial oxidation of heavy petroleum residues, the H2 /CO ratio falls from 2 to less than 1.
    3. When the synthesis gas (H2 /CO) ratio is (too low), the ratio is adjusted.
      1. water gas shift” reaction in which CO reacts with the steam to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide .
      2. CO +H2O → CO2 + H2 ∆H = -10 Kcal
    4. When the synthesis gas H2 /CO ratio is too high, in case of steam reforming of methane by
      1. ✓ Adding CO from outside source
      2. ✓ CO2 is introduced to react with excess H2
      3. CO2 +3H2 → CH3 OH + H2O
  4. Manufacturing of Synthesis Gas
    1. Steam Reforming
      1. 1. Synthesis gas is produced through steam reforming of a desulphurized, light hydrocarbon feedstock (e.g. natural gas CH4 ) and steam.
      2. 2. The reaction is conducted at pressures up to 40 atm and temperatures of 900-1000 o C, with a supported nickel oxide catalyst in a heated tubular reactor.
      3. 3. The reaction is endothermic and produces CO and H2 , while the reverse reaction between CO and H2 takes place over nickel catalyst to form CH4 and H2O. CH4 + H2 O ↔ CO + 3H2 ∆H= 50 Kcal (endothermic)
    2. Partial Oxidation of methane
      1. 1. Oxygen, steam, and methane are fed into a tubular reactor at high temperature and pressure (1300 °C, 40 atm).
      2. 2. A series of endothermic reactions occur with steam and the partial oxidation of methane.
      3. 3. The reaction results in the production of CO and H2. CH4 +0.5 O2 → CO + 2H2
  5. Methanol Applications
    1. ✓Adhesives and sealant chemicals
    2. ✓Antifreeze/pipeline dehydration
    3. ✓Industrial waste treatment agent
    4. ✓Intermediates
    5. ✓Fuels and fuel additives
    6. ✓Laboratory chemicals
    7. ✓Corrosion inhibitors and anti-scaling agents
  6. Methods of Productions
    1. ✓Catalytic Hydrogenation of CO ( accounts for 75% production)
    2. ✓Catalytic Hydrogenation CO2 (CO2 + 3 H2 → CH3 OH + H2 O )
    3. ✓Oxidation of LPG to give oxygenated HC products of which methanol is a major fraction