1. Phloem
    1. Translocation
      1. Phloem loading
        1. Sucrose is transported actively from sugar source to sieve tube of plants.
        2. ATP is supplied by companion cells.
        3. Water pressure in the sieve tube low and osmotic pressure become high.
        4. Water is transported via osmosis from xylem tissues into the sieve tube.
        5. Entrance of water increases water potential and hydrostatic pressure in sieve tubes.
      2. Transport in sieve tube
        1. Difference in solute concentration between sugar source and sugar sink exist.
        2. Hydrostatic pressure in sieve tube forces the phloem sap to flow along the tube.
      3. Phloem unloading
        1. When phloem sap reaches the sink,sucrose is unloaded into the sink
        2. Decrease the pressure in the source.
        3. Water moves out from the sieve tubes into the xylem.
    2. The complex tissue that acts as transport system for soluble organic compounds within vascular plants.
    3. Composed of sieve tubes,companion cells,phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma cells.
  2. Merismatic tissue
    1. Dividing tissue in plant are known as meristematic tissue
    2. Can be found at the plant part that shows growth
    3. Main function are to divide and help plant growth (vertical/horizontal)
  3. Vascular bundles in monocots and dicot
    1. products of photosynthesis(phloem) to be transported through the plant.
  4. Function
    1. Arrangement of multiple cell types in vascular plant
    2. allows for the transport of water,minerals(xylem)
    3. products of photosynthesis(phloem) to be transported through the plant.
  5. xylem
    1. Specialized type of vascular tissue to transport water and nutrients from root of a plant to the tips of the leaves.
    2. Transpiration
      1. Transpiration pull water up from xylem without column pf water breaking apart
        1. Water move from high to low water potential.
        2. Due to transpiration process,water potential in mesophyll cells low.
        3. Mesophyll cells take water from xylem tissues of the leaves.
        4. Loss of water in leaves cause a pull of water in the xylem ducts and draws more water upward into leaves.
        5. The pull of xylem sap is explained by Cohesion-Adhesion Theory.
          1. Cohesion- Attractive forces between water molecules due to hydrogen bond.
          2. Adhesion- Attractive forces between water molecules and wall of xylem
    3. Root pressure
      1. Pressure in roots that forces water in the xylem to move up the stems
        1. At night,the rate transpiration is low.
        2. Root cells continue to pump mineral ions into xylem through active transport.
        3. Casparian strips of endodermis surrounding xylem vessels prevent minerals from leak back into the soil
        4. Accumulation minerals lowers water potential within xylem.
        5. Water flows in from root cortex thus generating root pressure
        6. Pushes xylem sap upward leak back into soil.