1. Opening sales negotiation strategies
    1. 1. Make a bold offer
      1. Reason
        1. Room for negotiation
        2. other party may immediately accept
        3. May increase the value of your products and services in the other person's mind
        4. Avoiding a conflict between the "egos" of the negotiating parties, which could lead to a stalemate in the negotiations
        5. Create an atmosphere conducive to making the other side feel they have won the negotiation
      2. Response strategies
        1. Clear state the maximum bid
    2. 2. Define the objectives
      1. compromise between
      2. Response startegies
        1. Let your opponent show his terms first
    3. 3. Never accept first time offers
      1. Acceptance triggers reaction
        1. "I could have kept the price even lower."
        2. "Something must have gone wrong somewhere."
      2. Response strategies
        1. Recourse to higher authority
  2. Midfield Strategy
    1. 1. Recourse to higher authority
      1. Tips
        1. Don't let the other person know that you have the right to make the final decision
        2. A higher authority is a vague entity, not a specific person
      2. Response strategies
        1. Dismissing the possibility of the other person falsely claiming a higher authority
          1. Confirmation with the other party prior to negotiations that "the deal is on the right terms to make a final decision"
        2. Tips
          1. Preemptive strike
          2. Release of the other party from the right to reconsider and resort to higher authority
          3. Never give up
          4. 1. Stimulating the other person's sense of self
          5. 2. Get customers to commit to actively recommending your product to a higher authority
          6. Rejection itself is a signal of intent to buy
          7. 3. Using the "depend on" strategy
          8. Ensure the other person has the right to refuse you
        3. If the other party escalates to the highest authority, you can too. Whenever you call off, be sure to press the price down to the level of the initial offer
    2. 2. Never compromise
      1. Why
        1. Don't get caught up in thinking it's only fair to compromise on price
          1. Quoted price compromise twice, price difference 3:1
        2. Never offer a compromise price, always encourage the other party to offer first
          1. Make the other side feel that they are the winners of the negotiation
      2. Response
        1. Recourse to higher authority
        2. strategy of good guy /bad guy
    3. 3. “Hotpotato”
      1. Tips
        1. Don't let the other person pass on their problems to you
        2. When the other party throws it at you, verify its authenticity immediately
          1. Find out if the problem is really serious or if they want to see how you react
        3. Whatever the question, the point may not be to reduce prices
      2. Response
        1. verify its authenticity immediately
          1. "May I ask who has the authority to approve exceeding the budget?"
          2. "Who has the right to change the tariff?"
          3. "May I ask when your budget year ends?"
  3. Endgame Strategy
    1. 1. Good guy Bad guy
      1. Why
        1. Successfully pressurise the other party without creating any confrontation
      2. Response
        1. Recognising the other side's tactics
          1. other might feel embarrass
        2. Create a bad guy on our side
    2. 2. Nibbling strategy
      1. Objective
        1. Seeking more benefits from the other side
        2. Make the other person do something he didn't want to do in the first place
      2. Tips
        1. After negotiations have been underway for some time, achieve your objectives by gradually making seemingly trivial demands
        2. Don't make your offer straight away at the start of the negotiation
        3. Be sure to make a second effort when negotiations seem to be ending
      3. Response
        1. Inform the person in writing of the price of other services and do not give the impression that you have the final say
        2. Summarise the details at the end of the negotiation, using a variety of methods to make the other side feel that they have won the negotiation
    3. 3. Concession mode
      1. Tips
        1. Concessions create a fixed expectation in the other person's mind
        2. Never make equivocal concessions
          1. The other party kept asking for more
        3. Last concession was too large
          1. Hostility when the other party continues to ask for concessions
        4. All out
        5. Gradual reduction of room for concessions
  4. Strategies for smart use
    1. 1. Customers are willing to spend more
      1. You must give the other person a reason to do so
      2. Convince the other guy that he couldn't have gotten a better deal anywhere else
    2. 2. Something that is more important than money
      1. 1. Believe you are getting the best deal you can offer
      2. 2. Quality of the product or service
      3. 3. Terms of trade
      4. 4. Relative experiences
      5. 5. proposed commitments and performance in meeting them
      6. 6. Your credit and reliability
      7. 7. The respect you demonstrate
    3. 3. How much the client is willing to pay?
      1. Raising prices through the fiction of higher authority
      2. Judging each other's quality standards by offering a shortened version
      3. Determine the maximum price the other party is willing to pay by offering a high quality version
  5. Absolute Deal Strategy
    1. 1. The 4 stages of sales
      1. Defining the target
      2. Judging quality
        1. People who can afford your products and services
      3. Stimulate desire
      4. Closing the deal
    2. 2. 24 Absolute Closing Strategy
      1. Barge Strategy
        1. Even if he refused you yesterday, or an hour or even a minute ago, it doesn't necessarily mean that he will refuse your next request
      2. Racecourse Strategy
        1. When the person says no to you, don't take it as a no, but "it's time to take him for a spin around the stable"
          1. To take their minds off their earlier decisions
      3. Ben Franklin Strategy
        1. In favour vs. against reasons
        2. Help them develop a good sense of self when they don't know how to decide
        3. Ask for their consent before helping clients with their analysis
      4. The "last objection" strategy
        1. Pretend to have given up selling
          1. 1. Pretending to be defeated
          2. 2. Release of stress
          3. 3. Get the other person to focus their questions
          4. 4. Addressing the issues raised by the other party
      5. The "pet dog" strategy
        1. Take it back first
        2. Real Estate
          1. Sales staff taking pictures of guests in front of the house
      6. Door handle strategy
        1. Take the pressure off the person to make a purchase decision in advance
        2. Be sure to convince the person that you have given up the sales pitch
        3. You yourself are just asking for advice to be a better version of yourself next time
      7. Dawson strategy
        1. The longer they hold each other off, the more flexible they will become
    3. 3. Closing strategies that make people question
      1. Deliberate mistake strategy
      2. Wrong conclusion strategy
        1. Sales people usually ask a question but deliberately come up with a wrong answer
        2. Buyers corrected when they found themselves unknowingly ready to shop
  6. How to control negotiations
    1. 1. Negotiation drivers
      1. Driven by solving problem
        1. Find a solution
        2. The other party may pretend that, after you show your cards, they turn competitive
      2. Driven by personal
        1. Seeking personal gain
          1. Young negotiators eager to make a mark in the company
          2. Trade union negotiators bent on building prestige among their colleagues
        2. Response
          1. Satisfy each other's personal interests first
      3. Driven by attitude
        1. Vulnerable to deception
        2. Key
          1. You have to come up with a solution that is good for both parties
    2. 2. Spotting negotiation fraud
      1. Trapping
        1. Using trivial issues to lure you into giving in on the really important ones
        2. Response
          1. Focus on the issue at hand and downplay the other side's objections
          2. "Is that the only problem that bothers you?"
      2. Red herring
        1. The other party first makes a less important request and then withdraws it, in return asking you to make a really important concession
        2. Response
          1. Focus on the issues that really matter and don't allow the other person to tie them to concessions you're not willing to make
      3. Cherry picking
        1. Business splitting, with each piece of business going to the company that offers the lowest price for that business
        2. Response
          1. Establishing a good personal relationship with the other party before the negotiation
          2. Clients dealing with several agents at the same time is a big burden
    3. 3. Negotiation pressure points
      1. Time pressure
        1. Why
          1. Makes it easier to make concessions
          2. The longer you hold up the other side in a negotiation, the more likely they are to accept your point of view
        2. Respond
          1. Negotiate all the details at the beginning of the negotiation
          2. Never tell each other your deadlines
          3. If you have difficulty accepting the other party's terms, stop immediately and never make concessions because of the time and money you have invested
        3. When both deadlines are the same
          1. The party with more leverage in the negotiations can use time pressure
          2. The party with more options in negotiations tends to have the greater advantage
      2. Infomation pressure
        1. The more one side knows about the other, the more likely it is to win
        2. The Law of Information Gathering
          1. Be bold enough to admit you don't know
          2. Don't be afraid to ask questions
          3. Even if they don't answer, you can still gather a lot of information
          4. Bringing the other side into your sphere of influence
          5. Get out of their working environment
          6. Ask those who have dealt with them
          7. Communicate with the other party's subordinates beforehand
          8. Access to information through peer exchange
          9. We always give more weight to information that comes from unusual sources
          10. Some information may be a smokescreen to trick or distract you
    4. 4. Dealing with problematic negotiations
      1. Coping with the impasse
        1. Respite strategy
          1. Putting problems aside and solving small problems first
          2. Build up sufficient energy for negotiations before final discussion of important issues in the epicentre
      2. Coping with a dilemma
        1. Negotiations cannot progress
          1. Adjusting the negotiation climate
          2. Ease the tension
          3. Discuss whether to make adjustments in certain financial matters
          4. Discuss how to share the risk with each other
          5. Adjustment of negotiating team members
    5. 5. Dealing with an angry person
      1. 1. Setting the standard
        1. What does the other party want?
      2. 2. Exchange of information
        1. Get a full picture of the situation at hand
      3. 3. Reaching a compromise
        1. Appropriate concessions that the other party finds valuable
        2. Never take a concession you have to make = a concession you wish to make
  7. Understand your opponent
    1. 1. Cultivating personal influence
      1. Legitimacy
        1. title
      2. The power of awe
        1. Persistent adherence to a set of values
      3. Appealing power
        1. Personality Charisma
      4. Professionalism
      5. Situational power
        1. Is the client at a disadvantage due to the surrounding environment
          1. Will the post office staff accept your parcel
    2. 2. Understand the personality traits of the client
      1. Definitive/non-emotional
        1. During the negotiations
          1. Street fighter
          2. Winning is the only goal
          3. Treatment
          4. Tell him how much you've been hurt by pouring out your grievances
      2. Non-deterministic/emotional
        1. During the negotiations
          1. Mediator
    3. 3. Win-Win Sales Negotiations
      1. 1. Don't focus your negotiations on one focal point
      2. 2. Be sure to offer something back