- Appeal to wide diversity of people to dieter, weeken warriors and health conscious…But how much and what kind of protein is best?
- Structure component of muscle, brain, nervous system, blood, skin, hair…
- Important macronutrient serves as the transport mechanism for iron, vitamins, mineral, fats, and oxygen withtin the body
- Key to acid-base and fluid balance
- Enzymes speed up chemical reaction and antibodies use to fight infection are protein
Long chains of amino acids linked by peptide bond
The primary structure
The Secondary structure
- Tertiary structure
- Quaternary structure is Protein
- Protein structure
Amino acids composition
Essential amino acids can’t be made by th body and must be consumed in diets
- Three branched chain amino acids - leucine, isoleucine, Valine have been shown reduce the breakdown of muscles during exercise.
Nonessential amino acids can be made by the body and do not need to be ontained through the diet
- Have 11 amino acids
Complete protein contain all off essential amino acids
- Animal products. Notable exception: Soy, Quinoa(diên mạch), Chiaseed(hạt chia), Buckwheat(kiểu mạch), hemp(cây gai dầu), flax seed(hạt lanh).
Incomplete protein not contain all assential amino acids
- Plant food leave
- Amino acids table
Protein digestibility corrected amino acidsscore(PDCAAS)
- Is % amino acids food provide compare amino acid requirements of humans (after digest it)
- 1.0(100%) is highest score
- Casein, egg, milk, whey, soy protein: 1.0
- Beef: 0.92
- Black beans: 0.75…
Bioavailability(sinh khả dụng)
Amount off protein body can absorb and use. The more easily a food is digest is the more bioavailable.
- Animal product: Complete protein, high PDCAAS, more bioavailable are sources high quality protein than plant protein.
- Incomplete bound to protein make complete protein
- Grains and legumes;grains and dairy; pasta and cheese, legumes and seed
- Liquid remaining after the milk has been curled and strained(cô lập và lọc)
- Rapidly digested and absorbeb more than other high - quality protein such as casein and soy.
- Whey protein powder 11-15% protein - many food producing
- Whey protein concentrate 25-89% protein
- Whey protein isolate 90%+ protein- Lastose free
- High levels essential and branched chain: leucine, iso leucine; valine..vitamin and mineral
- 70% - 80% of milk protein.
- Micelle: a compound similar to soap suds that has a hydropphobic(kỵ nước) inside and a hydrophilic(ưa nước)
- Simpler micelle, soluble compound(hợp chất hòa tan)
- Amino acids in to bloodstream.
One off only vegetable protein contains all off essential amino acids.
- Flour 50% Protein is used in baked goods
- Concentrates 70% protein commonly added to nutrition bar, cereals(ngũ cốc) and yogurts
- Isolates 90 % Protein highly digestible, often added to sport drinks, health beverages, and infant formulas(sữa công thức cho trẻ sơ sinh)
- Major milk protein
Amino acid made to protein
The primary sequence is string of amino acid
- The secondary structures
- The tertiary structure
- The quarter structure
- Stransport protein found on cell membranes or bloodstream
- Synthesis of new protein within body
- Structural: sush as actin, myosin, fibrous, collagen
- Hormones, enzymes
- Antibodies such as immunoglobulin
- Other type protein
- Is removed amino or nitrogen from the carbon skeleton
- Nitrogen converted to urea in liver
- In kidney to be excreted
- Carbon skeleton be converted to glucose or ketones
- Energy, or used for cholesterol or fatty acid synthesis(tổng hợp)
- Glucose, or fat and the nitrogen is tranffered to a different carbon skeleton to make nonessential amino acid alanin.
All carbon skeleton can be used for energy
- Only glucogenic amino acids can make glucose
- Only ketogenic amino acid can make ketones
- Glucogenic amino acids
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- Amino acids that are both
- Ketogenic amino acid
- Body does not store Protein
- Breakdown and resynthesis from the cell's amino acid pool
- When body breaks down more protein than consumed(catabolism)
- High stress
- Consumed greater than protein broken
- In Times of growth
- Such as childhood
- Recovery from illness
- Response to resistance training when overloading the muscle promotes protein systhenic(anabolism)
General protein recommendations
American College and Sport Medical(ACSM)
- All off people: Minimum 0.8g/kg/day (0.36g/ib/day)
- Athlestes: 1.2-2.0g/kg/day(0.5-0.9g/ib)
Institute of Medicine(IOM)
- 10-35% AMDR
Benefits and risks of a high- protein diet
- Low - carbohydrates, high protein diets contribute to weight loss through several mechainisms.
- At least 24 weeken. Long-term effects of diet are limited.
- Inital weight loss is on the diuretic effect(lợi tiểu)
- Depletion(bất lợi) for athletes because it lead to metabolic ketosis leading to decrea appetite(thèm ăn) and calori intake.
- - Studies showed that the Atkins diet produced greater redution at 3-6 months than orther studies diets.
- After 1 year, all diets have same.
- Food consumed before, during, and after exercise
Combination of of Carbonhydrates and Protein 3:1
6-20g Protein consumed with 30-40 Carbonhydates within 3 hour post exercise as well as before exercise
- Encourege muscle resynthesis
- Restore hydration
- If only Protein is consumed without sufficient carbohydates to prodive the body energy need, then musle synthsis may be compromised(bị xam phạm)
Protein consumed during excercise to combat fatigue
- Recommended that more Leucine 45mg/kg/day and 22.5mg/kg/day Isoleucine and Valine (2:1:1) be ingested
- Consumed more 2.0 gg/kg/day is unlikely to result
- Subtopic 1
- Lacto - ovo vegetarians
- Protein Supplements
Digestion and Absorption
Denaturing(biến tính) in stomach
- Quaternary structure
- Tertiary structure
- Secondary structure
Long polypeptide chain: Amino acids connected together by peptide bond.
- Short polypeptide chain
Mixes in stomach
In small intestine
- Small intestine course of 1 to 4 hour
- Single amino or joined in two (dipeptide), three(tripeptide)
- Epithelia cell(biểu mô), cleaved into single amino acid
- Vegetable protein is not as well digested as animal because it iss less available to digestive enzymes.
- Important for immune system
- Protein digestion
- Adding acid, salt, heat to meat product facilitates denaturing
- Amino acid plays role in muscle hypertrophy.
- - Carbon skeleton is the carbon atoms are bonded together in a molecule, disregarding atoms of other elements and differences between single and multiple bonds.
- Life on Earth is carbon-based as all macromolecules that make up living organisms contain carbon atoms. Carbon can form four bonds and rarely becomes an ion, making it an extraordinarily flexible component of biological molecules.
- Pyruvate and nitrogen
- Floating Topic
- New glucose bên made in liver can be used in liver or back to the muscle
- - Decrease glycogen depletion
(cạn kiệt) due to decreate water reserve