1. Intruction:
    1. Appeal to wide diversity of people to dieter, weeken warriors and health conscious…But how much and what kind of protein is best?
  2. Funtion
    1. Structure component of muscle, brain, nervous system, blood, skin, hair…
    2. Important macronutrient serves as the transport mechanism for iron, vitamins, mineral, fats, and oxygen withtin the body
    3. Key to acid-base and fluid balance
    4. Enzymes speed up chemical reaction and antibodies use to fight infection are protein
    5. Energy
  3. Structure
    1. Long chains of amino acids linked by peptide bond
      1. The primary structure
        1. The Secondary structure
          1. Tertiary structure
          2. Quaternary structure is Protein
          3. Protein structure
  4. Quality
    1. Assessing by
      1. Amino acids composition
        1. Essential amino acids can’t be made by th body and must be consumed in diets
          1. Three branched chain amino acids - leucine, isoleucine, Valine have been shown reduce the breakdown of muscles during exercise.
        2. Nonessential amino acids can be made by the body and do not need to be ontained through the diet
          1. Have 11 amino acids
        3. Complete protein contain all off essential amino acids
          1. Animal products. Notable exception: Soy, Quinoa(diên mạch), Chiaseed(hạt chia), Buckwheat(kiểu mạch), hemp(cây gai dầu), flax seed(hạt lanh).
        4. Incomplete protein not contain all assential amino acids
          1. Plant food leave
        5. Amino acids table
      2. Digestbility
        1. Protein digestibility corrected amino acidsscore(PDCAAS)
          1. Is % amino acids food provide compare amino acid requirements of humans (after digest it)
          2. 1.0(100%) is highest score
          3. Casein, egg, milk, whey, soy protein: 1.0
          4. Beef: 0.92
          5. Black beans: 0.75…
      3. Bioavailability(sinh khả dụng)
        1. Amount off protein body can absorb and use. The more easily a food is digest is the more bioavailable.
          1. Animal product: Complete protein, high PDCAAS, more bioavailable are sources high quality protein than plant protein.
          2. Incomplete bound to protein make complete protein
          3. Grains and legumes;grains and dairy; pasta and cheese, legumes and seed
  5. Protein types
    1. Whey
      1. - Liquid remaining after the milk has been curled and strained(cô lập và lọc) - Rapidly digested and absorbeb more than other high - quality protein such as casein and soy.
        1. Whey protein powder 11-15% protein - many food producing
        2. Whey protein concentrate 25-89% protein
        3. Whey protein isolate 90%+ protein- Lastose free
        4. High levels essential and branched chain: leucine, iso leucine; valine..vitamin and mineral
        5. Supplement
    2. Casein
      1. - 70% - 80% of milk protein. - Micelle: a compound similar to soap suds that has a hydropphobic(kỵ nước) inside and a hydrophilic(ưa nước)
        1. Multiple micelle
          1. Simpler micelle, soluble compound(hợp chất hòa tan)
          2. Amino acids in to bloodstream.
    3. Soy
      1. One off only vegetable protein contains all off essential amino acids.
        1. Flour 50% Protein is used in baked goods
        2. Concentrates 70% protein commonly added to nutrition bar, cereals(ngũ cốc) and yogurts
        3. Isolates 90 % Protein highly digestible, often added to sport drinks, health beverages, and infant formulas(sữa công thức cho trẻ sơ sinh)
    4. Major milk protein
  6. Metabolism
    1. Anabolic is
      1. Amino acid made to protein
        1. The primary sequence is string of amino acid
          1. The secondary structures
          2. The tertiary structure
          3. The quarter structure
          4. Stransport protein found on cell membranes or bloodstream
          5. Synthesis of new protein within body
          6. Structural: sush as actin, myosin, fibrous, collagen
          7. Hormones, enzymes
          8. Antibodies such as immunoglobulin
          9. Other type protein
    2. Catabolism
      1. Energy production
        1. Demination
          1. Is removed amino or nitrogen from the carbon skeleton
          2. Nitrogen converted to urea in liver
          3. In kidney to be excreted
          4. Carbon skeleton be converted to glucose or ketones
          5. Energy, or used for cholesterol or fatty acid synthesis(tổng hợp)
          6. Glucose, or fat and the nitrogen is tranffered to a different carbon skeleton to make nonessential amino acid alanin.
          7. All carbon skeleton can be used for energy
          8. Only glucogenic amino acids can make glucose
          9. Only ketogenic amino acid can make ketones
          10. Glucogenic amino acids
          11. Alanine
          12. Arginine
          13. Asparagine
          14. Aspartic acid
          15. Cysteine
          16. Glutamic acid
          17. Glutamine
          18. Glycine
          19. Histidine
          20. Methionine
          21. Proline
          22. Serine
          23. Valine3
          24. Amino acids that are both
          25. Phenylalanine
          26. Isoleucine
          27. Threonine
          28. Tryptophan
          29. Tyrosine
          30. Ketogenic amino acid
          31. Leucine
          32. Lysine
        2. Nitrogen balance
          1. Body does not store Protein
          2. Breakdown and resynthesis from the cell's amino acid pool
          3. Balance
          4. Negative
          5. When body breaks down more protein than consumed(catabolism)
          6. High stress
          7. Infections
          8. Trauma
          9. Positive
          10. Consumed greater than protein broken
          11. In Times of growth
          12. Such as childhood
          13. Prenancy
          14. Recovery from illness
          15. Response to resistance training when overloading the muscle promotes protein systhenic(anabolism)
  7. General protein recommendations
    1. Comsumed
      1. American College and Sport Medical(ACSM)
        1. All off people: Minimum 0.8g/kg/day (0.36g/ib/day)
        2. Athlestes: 1.2-2.0g/kg/day(0.5-0.9g/ib)
      2. Institute of Medicine(IOM)
        1. 10-35% AMDR
  8. Benefits and risks of a high- protein diet
    1. Weight los
      1. - Low - carbohydrates, high protein diets contribute to weight loss through several mechainisms. - At least 24 weeken. Long-term effects of diet are limited.
        1. Inital weight loss is on the diuretic effect(lợi tiểu)
        2. Depletion(bất lợi) for athletes because it lead to metabolic ketosis leading to decrea appetite(thèm ăn) and calori intake.
        3. - Studies showed that the Atkins diet produced greater redution at 3-6 months than orther studies diets. - After 1 year, all diets have same.
    2. Athletes perfomance
      1. Food consumed before, during, and after exercise
      2. Combination of of Carbonhydrates and Protein 3:1
        1. 6-20g Protein consumed with 30-40 Carbonhydates within 3 hour post exercise as well as before exercise
          1. Encourege muscle resynthesis
          2. Restore hydration
      3. If only Protein is consumed without sufficient carbohydates to prodive the body energy need, then musle synthsis may be compromised(bị xam phạm)
      4. Protein consumed during excercise to combat fatigue
        1. BCAA
        2. Recommended that more Leucine 45mg/kg/day and 22.5mg/kg/day Isoleucine and Valine (2:1:1) be ingested
      5. Consumed more 2.0 gg/kg/day is unlikely to result
    3. Vegetarianism
      1. Vegetarians
        1. Subtopic 1
      2. Lacto - ovo vegetarians
    4. Protein Supplements
  9. Digestion and Absorption
    1. Denaturing(biến tính) in stomach
      1. Quaternary structure
      2. Tertiary structure
      3. Secondary structure
      4. Long polypeptide chain: Amino acids connected together by peptide bond.
        1. Short polypeptide chain
      5. Mixes in stomach
        1. In small intestine
          1. Small intestine course of 1 to 4 hour
          2. Single amino or joined in two (dipeptide), three(tripeptide)
          3. Epithelia cell(biểu mô), cleaved into single amino acid
    2. Vegetable protein is not as well digested as animal because it iss less available to digestive enzymes.
  10. Important for immune system
  11. Trypsin
  12. Protein digestion
  13. Adding acid, salt, heat to meat product facilitates denaturing
  14. Bloodstream
    1. Liver
  15. Pancreases
  16. Amino acid plays role in muscle hypertrophy.
  17. - Carbon skeleton is the carbon atoms are bonded together in a molecule, disregarding atoms of other elements and differences between single and multiple bonds. - Life on Earth is carbon-based as all macromolecules that make up living organisms contain carbon atoms. Carbon can form four bonds and rarely becomes an ion, making it an extraordinarily flexible component of biological molecules.
  18. Pyruvate and nitrogen
  19. Muccle protein catabolism
  20. Floating Topic
  21. New glucose bên made in liver can be used in liver or back to the muscle
  22. - Decrease glycogen depletion (cạn kiệt) due to decreate water reserve