1. people
    1. Judith Sargent Murray
    2. Adella Hunt Logan
      1. born in Sparta, GA, 2nd woman to teach at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, joined NAWSA in 1901, member of NAACP
    3. Lucy Stone
      1. founded AWSA; met Stanton and Anthony in 1851 following an anti-slavery conference in Seneca Falls
    4. Susan B Anthony
      1. founder of NWSA
    5. Sojourner Truth
    6. Mary Church Terrell
      1. 1896 NACW President until 1901, campaigned for suffrage, founding forty of the NAACP in 1909, emphasized solidarity between women, came from an affluent family (dad was a real estate developer + created first black-owned bank), both parents were mixed; her motto – lifting as we climb (used for NACW)
    7. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
      1. Declaration of Sentiments
        1. 68 women and 32 men (100/300 people) signed the declaration
        2. written in the format of the declaration of independence (starts with what gov. should be, then a list of grievances, then resolutions/demands)
        3. yes, it was important to create this document because (1) it's harder to be ignored, (2) a way to keep themselves unified and clarifies it for outsiders, (3) gives them something to return to
    8. Kate Gordon
      1. Southern States Women Suffrage Conference
        1. lobbied Louisiana state legislatures for white women only
  2. "nature" of Women
    1. - how should women be educated? - what is her role in relation to men? - what are the duties of motherhood? - how should "ladies" behave? - what is her responsibility at home?
  3. organizations
    1. National Association of Colored Women (NACW)
      1. founded in Jim Crow era, largest federation of local Black Women's clubs, voting was one of many agenda items along with anti-lynching campaigns
    2. 1869 – NWSA: Anthony + Staton, concentrate on the enfranchisement of women via an amendment
    3. 1869 – AWSA: Stone had already left the home and felt excluded, so she started a rival organization that will focus on state action
    4. 1882 – Massachusetts Women Opposed to Suffrage (MWOS)
      1. - by 1911, it was a national organization - uncomfy with rapidly changing expectations - feared (1) civic work would decline, (2) become partisan, (3) did not want to be associated with controversial issues, like free love and birth control - state level anti-suffrage
    5. 1890 – National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA)(MERGED)
    6. 1896 – Association of Colored Women
  4. public sphere v. private sphere
    1. public: meant for men; associated with strength, leadership, bravery
    2. private: meant for women; socially oriented, domestic
  5. women in the workforce
    1. Garment Work
      1. big business! but...by 1910 dresses were becoming more fashionable, so demand for shirtwaists was down + costs were up (materials and shipping); employers wanted continuous productivity at low costs
      2. employers feared unions, viewed as a loss of control
      3. KEY: economic survival (for both employer and employee)
      4. by 1900 5 million women were working for wages in the US
      5. 1909, NYC: 600 shops + 30,000 workers, 50 million in merchandise per year
      6. quantity supply lower than demand = shortage
      7. quantity supply higher than demand = surplus
    2. Women as Employees
      1. women workers can't vote for new laws, so where does their power exist?
      2. strike! (also a form of nonviolence)
      3. uprising of 20,000 (nov. 1909–feb. 1910): included triangle shirtwaist workers; three-way opposition of (1) manufacturers – hired people to abuse the strikers, (2) police – arrest on trumped up charges, and (3) courts – heavy fines, sentencing and humiliation
  6. conventions
    1. 1837 – Anti-Slavery Convention (US)
    2. 1840 – World Anti-Slavery Convention (UK)
    3. 1848 – Seneca Falls
      1. a 2 day conference of 300 people in upstate NY
      2. result of the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention in England
      3. NYTimes (and other sources) describe Seneca Falls as the event that launched the women's rights movement and spawned subsequent conventions; "The first women's rights convention" in the United States
    4. 1851 – Ohio Women's Rights Convention (Sojourner Truth's "Ain't I a Women")
    5. 1869 – the Southern States Women Suffrage Conference
  7. 1913 – suffrage march
    1. groups were segregated like the Alpha Suffrage Club founded by Ida B. Wells in Chicago
    2. 8000 participants from all over the country
    3. prompts Senate to vote (unsuccessfully) on suffrage
    4. marchers were assaulted but police did little to stop it
    5. during the pre-inauguration parade for Wilson
  8. 1917 – silent sentinels picket @ white house
    1. - nov. 13: first harassed, then arrested for "obstructing the sidewalk traffic" - nov. 15: (night of terror) warden instructs 40 guards to "teach them a lesson"
  9. 1918 – Wilson addresses the Senate in support of the 19th amendment
    1. - tied to WWI and the role of women in war efforts - vote failed in senate by 2 votes so they tried again the next year
  10. any voting rights struggle is about full citizenship
  11. women's rights movement as a case study
    1. in conflict: How to achieve suffrage? (AWSA, NWSA) Inclusive vision for suffrage
    2. collaboration: the overall goal of passing the amendment was supported broadly, despite the inclusive conflicts triangle fire --> brought the labor movement into the suffrage movement